Part  I. Fundamentals of Data Networks

Chapter 1. Role of Computer Networks in the Telecommunication World

Evolution of the computer systems

Batch-mode processing

Multiterminal  system -  a prototype of network

Wide Area Networks

Local Area Networks

Summary

Convergence of networks

Convergence of  LANs and WANs

Convergence of  Computer and  Telecommunication Networks

Summary

Computer networks - a particular case of the distributed  computing systems

Multiprocessor computers

Clusters

Computer networks

Distributed programs

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

 

Chapter 2. The General Principles of Networking

Connection "point-to- point"

Connection of a computer with peripheral devices

The Elementary case of interaction of two computers

The Problem of the physical data transmission in communication lines

Summary

Communication of several computers

Topology of physical connections

Addressing of network nodes

Switching and multiplexing

General problems of switching

Definition of date flow

Definition of route

Notification of a network about the chosen route

Data Forwarding

Multiplexing and demultiplexing

Sharing media

Switching techniques

Circuit switching

Packet switching

Message  Switching

Permanent and dynamic switching

Throughput of packet switched networks

Routing protocols

Ethernet  an example of standard packet switching  technology

Datagram and virtual circuit services  in packet switching networks

Summary

Structuring the way to large-scale networks designing

Reasons of structuring of  LANs and WANs

Physical and logic  structuring

Physical network structuring

Logic  network structuring

Summary

The Basic software and hardware components of a network

Multilayered model of a network

Network services and operation system

General structure of a telecommunication network

Summary

Networks of telecommunication carriers

Telecommunication carriers and clients

Services, service providers, network infrastructure

Clients

Infrastructure

Covered  Area

Summary

Enterprise-Wide network

What are the benefits of networks for enterprises? 

Department networks

Campus network

Enterprise-wide network

Summary

Requirements to computer networks

Performance

Reliability and security

Extensibility and scalability

 Transparency

Support of different kinds of the traffic

Manageability

Compatibility

Quality of service

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

 

Chapter 3. Open Systems and OSI Reference Model

The Layering

Decomposition of a network interaction problem 

Protocol, interface,  suit of protocols

Summary

 OSI reference model

Concepts

The Physical layer

The Data-Link layer

The Network layer

The Transport layer

The Session layer

The Presentation layer

The Application layer

Network-dependant and Application-oriented  layers

Summary

Standardization of networks

Concept of  Open System

Modular approach and  standardization

Sources of standards

Standard suits of communication protocols

The OSI suit

The TCP/IP suit

The IPX/SPX suit

The NetBIOS/SMB suit

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

 

Chapter 4. Generic Features of Communication Protocols

Asynchronous protocols

Synchronous bit-  and character-oriented protocols

Protocols with a flexible format of the frame

Connectionless and connection-oriented protocols

Error detection methods

Data compression

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

Chapter 5. Quality of Service in Packet Switched Networks

Basic concepts

Types of QoS

The Service level agreement

Requirements for different types of applications

Predictability of data transmission rate

Application sensitivity to losses and distortions of packets

QoS parameters

Summary

QoS service

Model of QoS service

QoS  mechanism of network node

QoS signaling protocols

Summary

Queue management algorithms

First-in, first-out (FIFO)

Priority Queuing (PQ)

Custom Queuing (CQ)

Weighted Fair Queuing  (WFQ)

Traffic profiling and shaping

Leaky bucket algorithm

Token bucket algorithm

Summary

Concept of traffic engineering

Disadvantages of best route technique (fish problem)

Optimization criteria for set of path

Constrained routing algorithms

Loose and strict paths

Role of edge devices

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

Chapter 6. Basics of network security

Security Strategies

What and Against Needs to Protect

Threat classification

System approach to securing

Security policy

Protection techniques

Encoding

Authentication, authorization, audit

Protected channel technology

Authentication techniques

Network Authentication based on non-expendable password

Authentication based on reusable password

Authentication based on disposable password

Digital certificates

Authentication of information

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

 

The Part II. Technologies of a physical layer

Chapter 7. Transmission lines

Types of transmission lines

Transmission media

Equipment  for transmission lines

Characteristics of transmission lines

The Spectral analysis of signals

Attenuation and impedance

Noise immunity 

Bandwidth

Throughput

What is throughput?

Interdependence between throughput and bandwidth

Media standards

Unshielded twisted pair 

Shielded twisted pair

Coaxial cable

Optical cable

Frequency ranges for wireless transmission

Satellite channels

The Structured cable systems

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

Chapter 8. Data Transmission Techniques

Modulation of analog signals

Analog modulation types

The Spectrum of the modulated signal

Discrete modulation of analog signals

Summary

Digital encoding

Requirements to methods of digital encoding

The non-return-to-zero code

The bipolar alternate mark inversion code

The bipolar impulse code

The Manchester code

The 2B1Q code

Logic encoding

Redundant codes

Scrambling

Data transmission in wireless networks

Microwave technology

Infrared technology

Spread Spectrum Technology

Frequency Hopping

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

Error detection

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

 

Chapter 9. Transmission networks

Circuit switching  main concepts of transmission networks

Circuit switching based on frequency and wavelength multiplexing

Circuit switching based on time-division multiplexing

General properties of circuit switched networks

Duplex mode transmission in FDM, TDM WDM circuits

PDH networks

Hierarchy of rates

Multiplexing methods

Limitations of PDH

SDH networks

History

Hierarchy of rates and multiplexing technique

Types of the equipment

STM-N frames

Typical topology

Survivability

Synchronization

Summary

DWDM networks

Principles

Typical topology

Light sources

Optical amplifiers

Optical fiber

Add-drop multiplexers

Regenerators

Transponders

Optical cross-connectors

Summary

Case study

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

 

Part III. Local Area Networks

Chapter 10. LAN classical technologies

General properties of LAN protocols

Typical topology and shared media

Structure of IEEE 802.x standards

Summary

LLC protocol

Three types of  LLC procedures

 LLC frame format and  LLC2 procedure

Summary

Ethernet

Access control method CSMA/CD

address

Stages of access

Collision origin

Round trip time and collision detection

Maximum throughput of Ethernet network

Ethernet frame format

802.3/LLC frame

Raw 802.3/Novell 802.3 frame

Ethernet DIX/Ethernet II frame

Ethernet SNAP frame

Using of different types of Ethernet frames

Ethernet physical layer specifications

10Base-5

10Base-2

10Base-T

Fiber Ethernet

Collision domain

Standards  10 Mbit/s Ethernet

Calculation of a configuration of Ethernet network 

Calculation PDV

Calculation PVV

Functions and characteristics of network adapters

Summary

Token Ring

Token  access method

Frame format

Physical layer

Summary

FDDI

Basic concepts

Access method

Fault tolerance 

Physical layer

Comparison of FDDI with  Ethernet and Token Ring

Summary

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

Chapter 11. High Speed Ethernet

Fast Ethernet

Fast Ethernet Physical layer

100Base-FX

100Base-T

100Base-T4

Rules of construction of Fast Ethernet segments including repeaters

Restrictions of  length of DTE-DTE segments

Restrictions of Fast Ethernet networks including repeaters

Features of100VG-AnyLAN

Summary

Gigabit Ethernet

Standard 802.3z specifications

Multi-mode fiber

Single-mode fiber

Twinax

Gigabit Ethernet with category 5 twisted pair

10G Ethernet

LAN interfaces

SDH/SONET interfaces

Summary

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

Chapter 12. Wireless LAN

802.11 Standards

Architecture and Services

Physical Layer

Medium Access Control

Frame Format

Wired Equivalence Privacy (WEP)

Strong security with 802.1x

Summary

Bluetooth

Overview

Radio Specification

Baseband Specification

Link Manager Specification

Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol

Summary

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

 

Chapter 13. LAN Structuring at Physical and Data Link Layers

Physical structuring by concentrators

Basic and additional functions of concentrators

Port blocking (partitioning)

Support of backup connections

Multisegment concentrators

SNMP management of the concentrator

The Design of concentrators

Summary

Bridges and switches

Limitations of shared environment

Advantages of  logic structured networks

Structuring with bridges and switches

The transparent bridge algorithm

Source-route transparent bridging

Limitations of bridge topology

Summary

Switches and full duplex protocols  for LAN

MAC-layer when working in the full duplex mode

Data flow control under  the full duplex mode

Summary

Switch design problems

Architecture and design of switches

Communication matrix

Common bus

Shared memory

The Combined switches

The Design of switches

Characteristics of productivity of switches

Filtering and forwarding rate

Store-and-forward switching

Cut-through switching

The Size of the address table

Volume of the frame buffer

Translation of data-link layer protocols

Switch capability for  traffic filtering

Priority frame processing

Summary

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

Chapter 14. Advanced Features of Switched LANs

Spanning Tree Algorithms

Alternative connections

Network graph

Construction of a tree in three steps

BPDU packages and a choice of the root switch

The Choice of the root and designated ports

Required time

STA merits and demerits

Summary

Channel aggregation in LAN

Trunks and logic channels

Problem with trunks

Struggle against "duplication" of packages

The Choice of port

Recovery after a fault

Summary

Virtual local networks

Why VLAN?

VLAN on the basis of one switch

VLAN on the basis of several switch

Summary

Typical circuit design of switched local area networks

Switch and hub combination

The Collapsed backbone

The Distributed backbone

Summary

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

The Part IV. Internetworks

Chapter 15. Network Layer as Integration Tool

 

Internetworking concept

Limitation of bridges and switches

Internetwork architectures

Principles of routing

Routing protocols

Summary

Internetworking by means of TCP/IP

Layering structure of  TCP/IP

The Application layer

The Transport layer

The Network layer

The network interface layer

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

Chapter 16. Addressing in IP-networks

Types of addresses of stack TCP/IP

Addresses in TCP/IP Networks

IP addresses

Classes of  IP addresses

Special IP addresses

Masks

The assignment of  IP addresses

The Centralized distribution of addresses

Automation of assignment of IP addresses - DHCP

Summary

Address resolution protocols

Mapping IP addresses to local addresses

Domains and domain names

Domain Name System (DNS)

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

 

Chapter 17. TCP/IP protocols of network and transport layers

Protocol IP

The Basic IP functions

Format of an IP-packet 

Summary

Routing tables

Examples. Routing tables for some types of routers

Routing table structure

Source of information for routing table

Routing without masks

Summary

Mask-based routing

Use of masks for networks structuring

Masks of variable length

Classless Inter-Domain Routing

Summary

Fragmentation

Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU)

Header fields related to fragmentation 

Reassembly of  IP packet

The Example of a fragmentation

Summary

TCP and UDP protocols 

Ports, multiplexing and demultiplexing

TCP the reliable stream delivery protocol

Connections

Sequence number and acknowledgement number

Receiver Window

Cumulative scheme of acknowledgement

Timeout and retransmission

Receiver Window Control

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

 

Chapter 18. Routing and routers

Routing. Protocol classification

Purpose of routing protocols

Routing without routing table

Adaptive routing

Distance Vector Algorithms

Link State Algorithms

Simultaneous operation  of several routing protocols

Interior and exterior gateway protocols

Summary

Routing Information Protocol (RIP)

         Construction of the of routing table

Adaptation RIP routers to changes in conditions of a network

Struggle against false routes in report RIP

Summary

OSPF Protocol

Construction of the routing table

Routing announcements HELLO

Metrics

OSPF stability

Summary

BGP Routing Via Autonomous Systems

Packet Filtering

Filtering by Address

Filtering by Service

Summary

Network address translation

Reasons for addresses substitution

Traditional NAT

Basic NAT

Network Address Port Translation (NAPT)

Double translation

Summary

Routers as Devices

Main functions of routers

Level of interfaces

Level of network protocols

Level of routing protocols

Additional functionalities of routers

Router classification on scopes

Basic routers characteristics

Convergence of switches and routers

The Ratio of switching and routing in corporate networks

Refusal of routing

3-layer switch providing classical routing

Data flow routing

Summary

Internetworking with Novell stack

Main feature of IPX

Format of an IPX packet

IPX routing

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

Part V. Wide-Area Networks (WAN) and Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN)

Chapter 19. Telephony networks

Plain old telephone service (POTS)

Devices

Data transmission

Summary

Integrated services digital network (ISDN)

History and purpose

ISDN user interfaces

Connection of the user equipment to ISDN

Addressing in ISDN

ISDN protocol suit

ISDN architecture

Use ISDN service for data transmission

Summary

Cellular Wireless Networks

Architecture of Cellular Networks

First Generation

Second Generation (2G)

Third Generation (3G)

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

Chapter 20. Basics of Wide-Area Packet Switched Networks

Architecture

Virtual circuits and datagram networks

Data-link WAN protocols

HDLC family

PPP

Using leased and dial-up lines

Modems for leased lines

Modems for dial-up lines

DSU/CSU

Devices for connecting to dial-up ISDN line

DTEDCE interfaces

WAN Services

Summary

Questions and exercises

Recommended reading

Chapter 21. X.25 Networks

Architecture

Addressing

Protocol suit

Summary

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

Chapter 22. Frame Relay Networks

Concepts

Protocol suit

QoS support

Applications of frame relay

Summary

Chapter 23. ATM Networks

Concepts

Protocol suit

ATM adaptation layer

ATM protocol

Categories of services and traffic management

Routing and Traffic Engineering with PNNI

Summary

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

 

Chapter 24. IP WAN

Structure of pure IP WAN

QoS in IP WAN

IntServ Framework

ReSource reserVation Protocol (RSVP)

DiffServ Framework

Summary

IP Security Protocol (IPSec)

Framework

Security association

Protection modes

Summary

IP over ATM/FR

Goals

IP over PVC

IP over SVC

Summary

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

 

Chapter 25. MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) Technology

Goals and concepts

Forwarding Equivalence Classes (FEC)

LSP, LSR, edge LSR

Frame formats

Signaling plane

RSVP

LDP

BGP

Routing plane

OSPF extension

IS-IS extension

Path aggregation

MPLS IGP

Traffic Engineering with MPLS

QoS in IP/MPLS networks

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

Chapter 26. Remote Access

Access schemes

Classification of interaction system

Types of supported services

Remote node

Remote control and terminal access

Mail

Used transport services

Dial-Up Access

xDSL Technology

Access via CATV

Wireless Access

Mobile access (2G, 3G)

Fixed access (MMDS, LMDS, 802.16)

Summary

Chapter 27.  Metropolitan Area Networks

Combining LAN and WAN features

SDH and DWDM MAN

Ethernet MAN

Resilient Packet Ring (802.17) technology

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

 

The Part VI. Data Networks Services

Chapter 28. Management Systems

Functional groups of management tasks

Management of a network configuration and naming

Fault management

Performance management

Security management

Account management

System management system

Summary

Telecommunication Management Network (TMN) Standard

Network element layer

Network element management layer

Network management layer

Service management  layer

Business management  layer

Summary

Network management systems architectures 

Scheme manager-agent

Distributed network management systems

Platform-oriented approach

Summary

Standard based on SNMP

OSI management standards

SNMP and CMIP comparison

Summary

 

Chapter 29. Information Services

FTP Archives

World Wide Web

E-mail

Multimedia broadcasting and multicasting

Voice over Packets (VoIP, VoFR etc)

Hosting Web, e-mail, applications

Content providing

Summary

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

 

Chapter 30. Security Services

Classification

Firewalls

VPN

IPSec VPN

ATM/FR VPN

IP/MPLS VPN 3rd Layer

IP/MPLS VPN 2nd Layer

Intrusion Detection Systems

Anti-virus tools

Security Service Providers

Summary

Questions and exercises

Case Study

Recommended reading

 

 

Answers

 

Index